Titolo

Pensioni: Repubblica dà i numeri OECD

2 commenti (espandi tutti)

(la ricetta precisa dice di includere tutte le transazioni consensuali, quindi anche vendita di droga, prostituzione, videopoker illegali, eccetera, e di non includere le transazioni violente come furto, estorsione e cosi' via)

Non so bene di quale "ricetta" tu stia parlando ma cio' e' falso. Nonostante il SEC-95 preveda l'inclusione dell'economia criminale nel computo del PIL, in Europa ancora non si e' dato luogo al procedere a queste stime (qui).

La mia ricetta viene da National Accounts - Frequently asked Questions sul sito web dell'Eurostat. Puo' darsi che non sia applicata scrupolosamente, ma non concordo sul fatto che sia "falso". Inoltre ritengo (come ho anche letto su articoli di ricerca economica) che le le stime Eurostat del PIL degli anni recenti includano buona parte dell'economia sommersa, inclusa quella composta da attivita' illegali. Il documento Eurostat riporta:

<em>Is the unobserved/illegal economy included in gross domestic product (GDP)?<em>

Due to its colourful nature, the issues of illegal activity and "shadow economy" regularly gain public attention incommensurate with their actual importance for the accounts.

The national accounts framework deliberately sets a "production boundary" to fix which activities are to be recorded in the accounts and which are not. Legal aspects are not instrumental in defining this production boundary. The SNA §6.30 and ESA 95 §3.08 give further detail on this.

As an example, the production of pharmaceuticals is an economically productive activity, regardless of

- whether the producing unit has acquired appropriate licences for the production,

- whether the product itself is subject to constraints in distribution,

- whether regulations on labour safety, environmental protection, product labelling etc. have been respected,

- whether revenue generated from the production has been duly declared to tax authorities.

The following cases can be distinguished:

  1. unrecorded legal production: Perfectly legal production may go unrecorded in official records either deliberately (eg. if reporting thresholds are set for reducing administrative burden) or by accident, the most common example being administrative registers with missing or outdated entries.

  2. concealed legal production: Perfectly legal production may be concealed from recording for a number of reasons, many of which may involve an element of illegality outside the productive activity itself. The most important example is legal production concealed for the purposes of tax evasion. Another common example is production which is legal in principle, but illegal when carried out by unauthorised producers.

Problems that fall in category 1 and 2 are common in national accounts. Assessing and improving the exhaustiveness of data sources constitutes a major part of the national accounts compilation.

  1. illegal production: the production of goods or services whose sale, distribution or possession is forbidden by law. These laws may vary between countries. By their very nature, this type of production tends to be unrecorded by official sources. Important activities in this category (that may also fall in category 2 depending on circumstances and national law) include the following:

    • production of drugs (for which, in many cases, an authorized legal production exists as well)

    • smuggling (which usually amounts to production of transportation services concealed for the purposes of tax evasion),

    • prostitution (for which legal forms may exist as well),

    • unlicensed gambling

    • re-production of copyrighted material (where the same activity would be legal if properly authorised).

Since these activities fall inside the production boundary, they must be included in national accounts estimates regardless of aspects of legality. This can be done, for example, by expanding the volume of recorded (legal) activity by mark-ups for the unrecorded elements. Details depend largely on the specific circumstances of national law and data sources. For practical reasons and due to a severe lack of data however, illegal activities are not included in the national accounts estimates of some countries.

Allowing for unrecorded activities is but one element in the national accounts compilation process. In verifying the exhaustiveness of National Accounts compiled by Member States, Eurostat also addresses the matter of unrecorded activity, but no separate figures for either unrecorded or illegal activity are collected by Eurostat.

 

  • prostitution (for which legal forms may exist as well),

La prostituzione in se' non e' affatto illegale nella maggior parte dei paesi civili: lo sfruttamento lo e'. Il fatto che non sia tassata dipende da stupidi moralismi che preferiscono ignorare il fenomeno (o, a seconda del cliente, chiamarlo "rimborso spese" ;-) ).